Microfluidics is the science and technology of manipulating small volumes of fluids in channels with dimensions as small as the size of human hair. You can think of a microfluidic system as a plumbing network composed of miniature pipes. Microfluidics has the potential to advance revolutionize biology, chemistry, and medical diagnostics by allowing many operations such as mixing of fluids, and synthesis of materials, as well as lab analyses to be miniaturized and integrated into a single device. Such a device is typically only a few cm² in size and is called a lab-on-chip platform. Electric fields are often used in lab-on-chip systems to control droplet generation, sorting, merging, and mixing. Today's paper study the interaction between electric field and droplets
Have you ever noticed how drops of water have different shapes on a clean piece of glass and in a frying pan? The frying pan surface is coated with a hydrophobic ("water-repellant") molecule so it does not stick to food, which typically contains a lot of water. As a result, a drop of water will take on a roughly spherical shape to reduce as much as possible its area of contact with the frying pan. If a surface has an even more hydrophobic coating than a frying pan, the drop can even reach a perfectly spherical shape (this is called ultrahydrophobicity).
Cell membrane is evolved to be flexible rather than rigid. This fluid 2D sheet plays a key role in cells's survival, be it tailoring the nutrition trafficking or rendering a mechanical toughness. In recent decades, however, artificial membranes have been developed with enhanced mechanical properties. Of such systems are particle-stabilized emulsions and in this post we will look into characterizing mechanical strength of such emulsion.
I’ve spilled a lot of coffee over the years. Usually not a whole cup, just a drop or two while pouring. And when it’s just a drop, it’s easy to justify waiting to clean it up. When the drop dries on the table, it forms a stain with a ring (Figure 1), giving it the look of a deliberately outlined splotch of brown in a contemporary art piece (In this context, the phrase “coffee ring” refers to this small-scale, spontaneously formed circular stain rather than the imprint left on a table from the bottom of a wet coffee cup). But the appearance of these stains is simply a result of the physics happening inside the drop. Coffee is made of tiny granules of ground up coffee beans suspended in water, so the ring must mean that these granules migrate to the edge of the droplet when it dries. Why do the granules travel as they dry? Today’s paper by Robert D. Deegan, Olgica Bakajin, Todd F. Dupont, Greb Huber, Sidney R. Nagel and Thomas A. Witten provides evidence that coffee rings arise due to capillary flow-- the flow of liquid due to intermolecular forces within the liquid and between the liquid and its surrounding surfaces.
Termites are among nature’s most spectacular builders, constructing mounds that can reach heights of several meters. Relative to the size of their bodies, these structures are considerably larger than the tallest skyscrapers constructed by humans . Surprisingly, in many termite species, individual termites don’t spend much time in these mounds. Instead, they live in an underground network of tunnels and chambers that can be home to millions of individual insects. But, if not to live in them, why do termites build such intricate and gigantic above-ground structures ?
In past two decades, several approaches have been developed and optimized to encapsulate a wide variety of materials, from food to cosmetics and the more demanding realm of therapeutic reagents. Inspired by biological cells, the first attempts were to use either natural or synthetic lipid molecules to form encapsulation vessels, i.e., liposomes. Then, with the increasing awareness of controlled release of cargo, especially for therapeutic purposes, advanced materials such as polymers were developed to form carrying vessels. Despite the enormous progress in encapsulation technologies, however, these methods can be limited in their applicability regarding encapsulation efficacy, permeability, mechanical strength, and for biological applications, compatibility.
Emulsions are typically prepared by mixing water and oil. However, emulsions can also be prepared by mixing two or more aqueous solutions containing incompatible polymers under the right conditions. Song and co-workers have developed a method to prepared water-in-water emulsions and used it as template to prepare microcapsules
Cells use tiny capsules called vesicles to uptake nutrients, to dump waste, and to communicate. They astonishingly alter the mechanics and size of these capsules that are made of very thin layers with an incredible efficacy and speed. But what are the key parameters that govern the formation of these vesicles?
There’s a reason why the word “peacock” has become a verb synonymous with commanding attention. Of course the size of the peacock tail is enough to turn heads, but it wouldn’t be nearly as beautiful without its signature iridescent, or angle-dependent, color. The brilliant colors of the peacock come from the interaction of light with the nanoscale structure of the feathers, which is much different from the origin of color in regular dyes and pigments. In today’s paper, Jason Forster and his colleagues in the Dufresne group developed a simple way to make colors that is inspired by the structures in certain bird feathers. To understand how it works, let’s start from the beginning.
When we think about fluid flow, we generally think of motion in response to some external force: rivers run downhill because of gravity, while soda moves through a straw because of the pressure difference created by sucking on one end. Recently, however, scientists have become interested in a class of fluids that have the capacity to move all by themselves -- the so-called “active fluids.” In this paper, Kun-Ta Wu and his co-workers explore how such a material can turn its stored chemical energy into useful work: cargo transport.