For the most part of biology, it is form that follows function. Proteins are a perfect example of this — they are made of a sequence of amino acids (the protein building units), which are synthesized by the ribosome. Once synthesized, the long strings of amino acids fold up into a particular 3D shape or conformational state. Proteins take less than a thousandth of a second to attain their preferred conformational state (called “native state”) that — if nothing goes wrong — ends up being the same for a given sequence. This process is called protein folding. Explaining how a protein finds its folding preference out of all possible ways in such a short time is a longstanding problem in biology.
We are surrounded by phenomena caused by the scattering of light. When enjoying a sunny day at the seaside, like in the photo at the top, why is the sky blue? Blue light scatters more than red light. Why is milk opaque? Protein and fat particles scatter light. If you are reading this with blue eyes, your eye color is due to light scattering. Scientists use the same general scattering principle to study the structure of soft materials using the scattering of well-defined radiation. Scattering measurements reveal structures between an ångström and hundreds of nanometers, an important region for studying soft matter. Just as the color of the sky results from light scattered by air molecules, the scattering of X-rays and neutrons tells us about the size and shape of compounds in soft materials along with their interactions, and I will focus on these two types of radiation.
Look inside a glass of milk. Still, smooth, and white. Now put a drop of that milk under a microscope. See? It’s not so smooth anymore. Fat globules and proteins dance around in random paths surrounded by water. Their dance—a type of movement called Brownian motion—is caused by collisions with water molecules that move around due to the thermal energy. This mixture of dancing particles in water is called a colloid.