In the 1966 movie Fantastic Voyage, a submarine and its crew shrink to the size of a microbe in order to travel into the body of an escaped Soviet scientist and remove a blood clot in his brain. The film gave viewers a glimpse into a possible future where doctors could treat patients by going directly to the source of the problem instead of being limited by the inaccessibility of most parts of the human body. This dream of a tiny submarine that can be piloted through the human body to deliver medical care remains, even 50 years later, in the realm of science fiction. However, Miskin and coworkers at Cornell University have brought us one step closer to making this a reality with their recent development of autonomous microscale machines.
The skeleton is the backbone of the body, both literally and figuratively. Healthy bones protect soft organs from injury and enable the body to move. Starting from childhood, staying active and following a healthy diet helps the body maintain healthy bones. However, as people age, their bones can start to weaken. There are often no early symptoms to weakening bones, and as a result the first indication of a problem may be a painful break once the weakening has already significantly progressed.